section 29(2)

INTRODUCTION AND BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Anyone who arrests a person, with or without a warrant, must inform them of the process or warrant or reason for the arrest, if feasible.

SECTION WORDING

Notice (2) It is the duty of every one who arrests a person, whether with or without a warrant, to give notice to that person, where it is feasible to do so, of (a) the process or warrant under which he makes the arrest; or (b) the reason for the arrest.

EXPLANATION

Section 29(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada describes the duty of anyone who arrests another person, whether they have a warrant or not. The section requires that the arresting person must give notice to the person they are arresting, where it is feasible to do so, of either the process or warrant under which they are making the arrest or the reason for the arrest. This provision exists to protect individuals from arbitrary detention and to ensure that they are aware of the reasons behind their arrest. Such notice is important as it informs the individual of the legal grounds of their detention, and enables them to seek legal representation or challenge the grounds for their arrest. In the context of the Canadian criminal justice system, section 29(2) is an important aspect of the procedural safeguards for persons who are under arrest. It is consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees certain legal rights and protections to individuals, including the right to be informed promptly of the reasons for their arrest and the right to legal representation. In summary, Section 29(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada serves as a check on arbitrary detention, and ensures that individuals know the legal basis for their arrest, allowing them to exercise their legal rights.

COMMENTARY

Section 29(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada sets out a very important legal obligation for anyone who makes an arrest in Canada. The section mandates that anyone who arrests a person, whether with or without a warrant, must give notice to the person that they are being arrested and the reason for their arrest. This notice must be given as soon as it is feasible to do so. The purpose of this section is to protect the rights of individuals who are being arrested and ensure that they are aware of the reason for their arrest. This notice requirement is critical to ensuring that the police do not abuse their powers and that individuals are not arrested arbitrarily or without just cause. It is a basic protection against unlawful detention and arrest. The duty to give notice is not absolute and does depend on what is feasible in the circumstances. For example, if the individual is resisting arrest and poses an immediate threat to the arresting officer or to the public, it may not be practical or safe to provide the notice immediately. In that case, the notice can be provided as soon as it is feasible, such as once the situation has been neutralized. The provision also requires that the notice includes certain information. Where it is feasible, the individual must be informed of the process or warrant under which they are being arrested. This ensures that the arrested individual has some knowledge of the legal process and can understand the implications of their arrest. Alternatively, if the individual cannot be provided with the process or warrant information, they must be informed of the reason for their arrest. This requirement ensures that the individual knows why they are being arrested and allows them to make informed decisions about their legal options. Failure to comply with the notice requirement is not a criminal offence, but it is an important requirement that must be complied with by law enforcement officers conducting an arrest. In some cases, failure to provide proper notice can result in civil remedies, including compensation for any harm or damage caused by an unlawful arrest. The notice requirement in Section 29(2) is a procedural safeguard that ensures that individuals are not arbitrarily deprived of their liberty. It is an important protection against abuse of police powers and helps to ensure that the Canadian justice system is fair and just. The provision reinforces the fundamental principle that everyone is presumed innocent until proven guilty and that the legal process must be fair and transparent. In this way, Section 29(2) is a cornerstone of Canadian criminal law that helps to uphold the integrity of the justice system.

STRATEGY

Section 29(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada imposes a duty on any person effecting an arrest, whether with or without a warrant, to provide notice to the arrestee of the process or warrant under which the arrest is being made or the reason for the arrest. It is important that law enforcement officials and private citizens alike understand the strategic considerations involved in complying with this provision. One of the primary reasons for providing notice is to avoid violating the arrestees rights. A failure to provide notice may result in a violation of the arrestees constitutional rights, which could render the arrest invalid. Additionally, failing to provide notice may result in charges against the arresting officer, as well as civil liabilities for the officer and the agency they represent. Another strategic consideration is the potential for resistance or violence by the arrestee, which may occur if they are not informed of the reason for the arrest. Officers need to use judgment and consider the situation in order to determine whether or not it is safe to inform the arrestee of why they are being arrested. One strategy that officers may employ is to inform the arrestee of the reason for the arrest immediately, but only after taking measures to ensure their own safety. For example, officers could perform a pat-down search or restrain the individual before informing them of the reason for the arrest. This approach can help officers to minimize the risks associated with providing notice. Another option for officers is to provide notice quickly but in a more measured manner. This can involve informing the arrestee of the reason for the arrest, but not disclosing all the details at once. Instead, officers may provide a brief overview of the situation and ask the individual to cooperate while they explain further. It is important to note that there are circumstances in which providing notice may not be feasible or advisable. For instance, if the individual is a threat to the safety of the officer or the public, notice may need to be delayed until the situation is under control. In such cases, officers must be able to justify their actions to defend themselves against potential charges of violating the criminal code. Ultimately, providing notice under section 29(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada requires careful consideration of the situation at hand. Law enforcement officials must be able to balance the need to comply with the legal requirements with their duty to protect themselves and the public. By adopting strategic approaches to providing notice, officers can minimize legal risks while still performing their duties effectively.