section 425.1(1)


This section of the Criminal Code of Canada protects employees from retaliation for reporting illegal activities within their workplace.


425.1(1) No employer or person acting on behalf of an employer or in a position of authority in respect of an employee of the employer shall take a disciplinary measure against, demote, terminate or otherwise adversely affect the employment of such an employee, or threaten to do so, (a) with the intent to compel the employee to abstain from providing information to a person whose duties include the enforcement of federal or provincial law, respecting an offence that the employee believes has been or is being committed contrary to this or any other federal or provincial Act or regulation by the employer or an officer or employee of the employer or, if the employer is a corporation, by one or more of its directors; or (b) with the intent to retaliate against the employee because the employee has provided information referred to in paragraph (a) to a person whose duties include the enforcement of federal or provincial law.


Section 425.1(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada is a provision that protects whistleblowers from any kind of retaliation or punishment from their employers if they report illegal activities in the workplace. It applies to all employers and individuals acting on their behalf, including those in positions of authority such as supervisors and managers. The section prohibits disciplinary measures, demotions, terminations, or any other adverse effects on the employment of an employee who reports illegal activities to a person responsible for law enforcement at the federal or provincial level. Furthermore, employers cannot threaten employees with such measures in an attempt to prevent them from reporting illegal activities. Subsection (a) of Section 425.1(1) prohibits employers from taking action against employees who report any illegal activity that the employee believes the employer or any of its officers or employees may be committing, in violation of any federal or provincial laws or regulations. This provision enables employees to report any misconduct in their workplace without fear of retribution and ensures that the reported activities are investigated promptly. Subsection (b) of Section 425.1(1) prohibits employers from retaliating against employees who have provided information under subsection (a). This ensures that employees cannot be punished for their participation in investigations or for raising concerns in good faith. Section 425.1(1) aims to promote workplace transparency and provides employees with the protection they need to report any illegal activities happening in their workplace without fear of reprisal. As such, it serves as an important tool for upholding the rule of law and ensuring that any misconduct, corruption, or other illegal activities are detected and dealt with accordingly.


Section 425.1(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision that seeks to protect whistleblowers against employer retaliation. A whistleblower is an employee who discloses information about illegal or unethical practices within their workplace. Such disclosures are crucial for maintaining transparency and accountability, preventing corruption, and protecting the public interest. However, whistleblowers often face serious consequences for speaking out. Employers may subject them to disciplinary measures, demotion, termination, or other forms of retaliation, out of fear of being exposed or to discourage others from following suit. This can result in financial, emotional, and reputational harm to the whistleblower, and may discourage others from reporting wrongdoing. The provision, therefore, makes it a criminal offence for an employer or someone acting on their behalf or in a position of authority in relation to an employee, to take any adverse action against them with the intent of compelling them to abstain from providing information to a person whose duties include enforcing federal or provincial law, or to retaliate against them for doing so. The provision also protects whistleblowers from civil liability for making disclosures that fall within its ambit. In other words, an employer cannot sue a whistleblower for damages or seek an injunction against them for providing information as described in the provision. The intent of the provision is to encourage and protect whistleblowers so that they can provide information without fearing reprisal. By doing so, the provision supports the broader goals of justice, accountability, and transparency. It also serves to deter employers from engaging in illegal or unethical practices by exposing wrongdoing and levelling the playing field for employees who might otherwise be deterred from speaking out. However, the provision is not without limitations. For example, it does not apply to disclosures made to anyone outside the law enforcement or regulatory context. This means that whistleblowers may not be protected if they provide information to the media, advocacy groups, or other non-regulatory bodies. Additionally, the provision only applies to whistleblowers who report violations of federal or provincial laws, and not those who raise concerns about internal policies or procedures. The provision also requires proof of specific intent to retaliate or compel silence on the part of the employer, which may be difficult to establish in practice. This could lead to a situation where an employee is punished for providing information, but the employer argues that it was for some other reason. Moreover, the provision does not provide for any formal procedures or mechanisms for whistleblowing, which could result in a lack of consistency or clarity in how whistleblowers are protected and supported. In conclusion, Section 425.1(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision that seeks to protect whistleblowers against employer retaliation. However, its limitations mean that it may not provide comprehensive protection for all whistleblowers. It is, therefore, important to continue to develop and strengthen laws and policies that support and encourage whistleblowing, and that protect whistleblowers from retaliation and harm.


Section 425.1(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada is a critical provision that protects employees who come forward to report unlawful conduct by the employer or its agents. The section prohibits employers or those acting on their behalf from taking disciplinary action or terminating the employment of an employee that reports wrongdoing. When dealing with this section of the Criminal Code of Canada, companies and employers should consider the following strategic considerations: 1. Develop Policies and Procedures: Employers should develop policies and procedures to handle reports of wrongdoing by employees. They should create a safe and welcoming environment for employees to report any misconduct without fear of retaliation. This process should include a clear reporting mechanism, confidentiality, and protection against reprisals. 2. Train Employees: Employers should provide training to their employees to educate them about their rights and obligations related to whistleblowing. They should understand what constitutes a wrongful act by an employer or its agents and the whistleblower protections provided by the law. 3. Conduct an Internal Investigation: Employers should conduct a thorough internal investigation into the allegations to determine their veracity. They should investigate allegations of misconduct promptly, impartially, and objectively and take appropriate action if they find any wrongdoing. This process will help prevent any potential breaches of the Criminal Code of Canada by an employer or its agents. 4. Take Steps to Mitigate Risk: Employers may take proactive measures to reduce the potential liability for non-compliance with Section 425.1(1). They may implement a cooling-off period or severance package to the employee who has reported the wrongdoing of the employer or its agents. 5. Seek Legal Advice: Employers should consult legal counsel promptly if an employee reports any unlawful activities. Legal advice is crucial to navigate the legal implications and possible avenues of recourse in each case. The following strategies can be employed by employers to comply with Section 425.1(1): 1. Create a whistleblower policy outlining the procedures and potential remedies available to employees who report unlawful acts by the employer. 2. Develop clear reporting mechanisms that allow employees to report wrongdoing without fear of retaliation. 3. Educate employees on the importance of whistleblowing and the legal protections available to them. 4. Ensure impartial and objective investigations into all allegations of wrongdoing. 5. Follow all legal and ethical protocols to mitigate potential risks associated with not complying with Section 425.1(1). In conclusion, Section 425.1(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada provides essential protections to employees who report illegal conduct by their employers. Employers must take proactive measures to prevent retaliation against employees who report wrongdoing. By developing policies and procedures, conducting impartial and objective investigations, and taking steps to mitigate potential risks, employers can create a safe and welcoming environment that encourages whistleblowing and compliance with the law.