section 64


Section 64 of the Criminal Code of Canada defines a riot as an unlawful assembly that has become tumultuous and disruptive to the peace.


64. A riot is an unlawful assembly that has begun to disturb the peace tumultuously.


Section 64 of the Criminal Code of Canada defines what constitutes a riot. It states that a riot is an unlawful assembly that has begun to disturb the peace tumultuously. This means that a group of people gathered in a public place with the intention of protesting or demonstrating their views cross the line when their actions infringe upon the rights and safety of others, causing chaos and destruction. The term "unlawful assembly" refers to any gathering of three or more people whose purpose is to commit a crime or carry out a protest that is likely to lead to a breach of peace. An example of such a gathering is a group of people who block a street or prevent access to a building. The disturbance of the peace can include various activities, such as looting, destruction of property, violence against individuals or law enforcement officials, or even just the creation of loud noise. The use of the term "tumultuously" indicates that the disturbance is not just mild or moderate but is marked by violence, confusion, or disorder. In other words, the distinction from a peaceful protest is that a riot poses a clear and present danger to public safety and requires immediate intervention by law enforcement officials. Therefore, a riot constitutes a serious criminal offense under Canadian law, and anyone who participates in or incites such a gathering can be charged with an indictable offense and face harsh penalties such as imprisonment. The Criminal Code of Canada shows that the rule of law comes above even the guarantee of free expression, and any conduct that threatens peace or security must be dealt with decisively.


Section 64 of the Criminal Code of Canada defines the crime of rioting as being an unlawful assembly that has begun to disturb the peace tumultuously. What this means is that when a group of individuals come together with an intent to commit a crime or cause a disturbance, this can be considered as an unlawful assembly. If this group starts engaging in violent or disruptive acts that create chaos and disturb the peace of the community, it can be classified as a riot. Canada has seen its fair share of riots, some of which have made international headlines. For example, the 2011 Stanley Cup riots in Vancouver caused millions of dollars in damages and resulted in several injuries. The 2010 G20 Summit in Toronto saw thousands of protesters take to the streets, resulting in a riot that saw downtown Toronto shut down and hundreds of arrests being made. While peaceful protests are a fundamental right in Canada, when these protests turn into riots, they become dangerous and threaten the safety of individuals and communities. Section 64 of the Criminal Code of Canada is essential in ensuring that peaceful assemblies and protests do not escalate into violent riots. By defining a riot and making it an indictable offence with strict penalties, this section sets a clear precedent that such behavior will not be tolerated. The penalties for rioting include prison sentences of up to two years for a summary conviction and up to ten years for an indictable offence. The section also encompasses the responsibility of the police and law enforcement in maintaining the peace during protests and other public assemblies. The police are authorized to take reasonable measures to maintain the peace and prevent violence during lawful gatherings. While it is important for the police to maintain the peace, it is equally important to ensure that they do not infringe upon the rights of peaceful protesters or use excessive force when handling such events. Section 64 also highlights the importance of public safety, which is a fundamental principle in Canadian society. Communities and individuals have the right to live and carry out their daily activities in a peaceful and safe environment. Riots threaten public safety by causing property damage, injury, and even loss of life. As such, the consequences of rioting go beyond criminal penalties and can have far-reaching socio-economic effects on a community. In conclusion, Section 64 of the Criminal Code of Canada is an essential piece of legislation in maintaining public safety, protecting individual rights, and preventing the escalation of peaceful assemblies into riots. The severe penalties and strict enforcement of this section sends a clear message that such behavior will not be tolerated, and the rights of individuals and communities to live peacefully will be safeguarded.


When dealing with section 64 of the Criminal Code of Canada, there are several strategic considerations that must be taken into account, including understanding what constitutes an unlawful assembly, the level of disturbance required to constitute a riot, and the available options for police and other law enforcement agencies to address the situation. The term "unlawful assembly" is defined broadly under Canadian law and can encompass any group of people who gather with the intent to disturb the peace or provoke disorder. However, to be considered a riot under section 64, the assembly must also reach a certain level of tumultuousness, characterized by violence, property damage, and other disruptive behaviors. One of the key strategies that law enforcement agencies can employ when dealing with section 64 is to assess the situation and determine the appropriate level of response. For example, if the disturbance is relatively minor and poses little threat to public safety, officers may opt to facilitate peaceful dispersal of the assembly or monitor the situation from a distance. However, if the situation is more volatile and presents a risk of serious injury or property damage, police may need to take more aggressive action to restore order. Another important consideration when dealing with section 64 is the potential for escalation. In many cases, a peaceful assembly may devolve into a riot due to the presence of agitators or other factors, such as the use of tear gas or other crowd control measures. To avoid exacerbating the situation, it is important for police and other law enforcement agencies to adopt a measured response that is targeted toward preventing violence and preserving public safety. Additional strategies that may be employed when dealing with section 64 include establishing a safe perimeter around the disturbance to prevent others from entering or exiting the area, communicating clearly with the assembly to defuse tensions and encourage peaceful dispersal, and using non-lethal force, such as pepper spray or batons, to disperse or subdue rioters if necessary. Ultimately, the key to effectively responding to a situation under section 64 of the Criminal Code of Canada is to balance the need for public safety with the rights of individuals to protest and assemble peacefully. This requires a thoughtful and flexible approach that takes into account the unique circumstances of each situation and prioritizes the safety and well-being of all involved.