section 66(1)


Being a member of an unlawful assembly is a summary conviction offence under Canadian law.


66. (1) Every one who is a member of an unlawful assembly is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.


Section 66(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada makes it an offence to be a member of an unlawful assembly. An unlawful assembly is a group of three or more persons who have come together for a common purpose that is in violation of the law. Such an assembly is considered an offence when it is likely to cause a breach of the peace, disturbance of the public tranquility, or the commission of any unlawful act. This provision is important in maintaining public order and safety. It holds individuals accountable for their participation in a group that has the potential to cause harm to others or engage in criminal activity. By making it an offence to be a member of an unlawful assembly, the law seeks to deter individuals from engaging in such behaviour and prevent the escalation of violence or disorder. The punishment for this offence is a summary conviction, which implies a relatively minor penalty. However, the severity of the punishment may depend on the circumstances of the offence and the harm caused. In more serious cases, individuals may face charges of participating in a riot, which carries harsher penalties. Section 66(1) operates alongside other provisions of the Criminal Code that deal with public order offences such as rioting, unlawful assemblies, and breaches of the peace. These provisions work together to ensure that individuals are held accountable for their actions and that public order is maintained in the Canadian society.


Section 66(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada specifies that every person who participates in an unlawful assembly is committing an offense that is punishable on summary conviction. This section of the code is one of the many laws that regulate public demonstrations and assemblies in Canada. Unlawful assembly is a term that refers to a situation where three or more individuals gather with a common objective that is against public peace. In most cases, such gatherings are intended to cause violence, damage property, or create fear and insecurity among the public. Unlawful assembly is considered a serious offense by the Canadian legal system, and it comes with severe penalties for offenders. One essential aspect of this section of the code is that it does not just target the organizers or leaders of an unlawful assembly. The law is clear that every person who participates in such a gathering is committing an offense and should face consequences. This provision encourages individuals to be cautious and critically evaluate the nature of any public gathering they intend to join. The legal framework for public demonstrations and gatherings in Canada is based on the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. This fundamental document guarantees Canadian citizens' freedom of expression, peaceful assembly, and association. However, the law also recognizes that these freedoms should not infringe on the public's safety, security, and peace. When an assembly turns violent, aggressive, or damaging, it no longer qualifies for constitutional protection, and the participants risk facing criminal charges. Section 66(1) gives law enforcement agencies the authority to disperse such gatherings and arrest anyone who participates in an unlawful assembly. As with any criminal offense, the prosecution bears the burden of proof to show that the accused was part of an unlawful assembly. This requires demonstrating that the accused intended to participate in an unlawful act or acted in a manner that showed support or approval of the group's objective. The punishment for this offense varies, but it often involves fines or imprisonment, depending on the severity of the offense. In summary, section 66(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada prohibits the involvement of any individual in an unlawful assembly. This provision emphasizes that the law applies not only to the organizers of the gathering but also to all participants. It also creates a legal framework that balances the rights of Canadians to peaceful assembly and expression and the need to maintain public peace and security. While this law might seem restrictive, it is essential in curbing the proliferation of violent and dangerous demonstrations that threaten the safety and peace of Canadians.


When dealing with Section 66(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada, there are various strategic considerations that legal practitioners must take into account. This section of the Criminal Code of Canada criminalizes the act of being a member of an unlawful assembly, and as such, understanding how this section is applied in practice is essential. In some cases, individuals who find themselves facing charges related to Section 66(1) may be part of a peaceful demonstration that was deemed unlawful due to circumstances beyond their control. In other cases, individuals could be charged for their alleged roles in violent activities perpetrated during an illegal gathering. One of the primary strategic considerations that legal practitioners must consider when dealing with charges related to Section 66(1) is the strength of the prosecution's case. In cases where the prosecution has a strong case, legal practitioners may advise their clients to accept a plea bargain. In contrast, if the defense team believes that the prosecution's case is weak, they may choose to pursue an acquittal by arguing that their clients were not members of an unlawful assembly. Alternatively, the defense team could argue that their clients were not aware that the gathering was illegal or that they had been coerced into attending the gathering. Another important strategy that could be employed in a case related to Section 66(1) is plea bargaining. In some cases, it may be possible for legal practitioners to negotiate a plea deal with the prosecution, which could lead to reduced charges or a reduced sentence for their clients. This option is often chosen when the evidence against the accused is strong and the likelihood of conviction is high. However, it is important to note that plea bargaining is not always advisable since it requires defendants to plead guilty and may lead to a criminal record. A third strategy that could be employed in cases related to Section 66(1) is the use of expert witnesses. Expert witnesses can provide valuable testimony in legal proceedings by explaining a complex issue or providing insight into a particular area of knowledge. In cases related to Section 66(1), expert witnesses could be used, for example, to testify about the nature of public assemblies, the history of protests and social movements, or the psychology of those who attend such gatherings. Expert witnesses can provide valuable insight into the context of the gathering and can help the defense team build their case. Lastly, it is important to consider the potential political implications of charges related to Section 66(1). As noted earlier, this section of the Criminal Code of Canada has been used to criminalize individuals who were part of peaceful demonstrations. Therefore, legal practitioners may choose to raise awareness of any potential political implications of the charges filed against their clients. This could include media outreach, working with advocacy groups, and engaging in public outreach campaigns to raise awareness. In conclusion, the strategies employed in cases related to Section 66(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada must be carefully considered based on the specific circumstances of the case. Legal practitioners must ensure that their clients' rights are protected and employ strategies that will be most effective in securing the best possible outcomes for their clients. Such strategies range from plea bargaining, expert witness testimony, and raising awareness to arguing for acquittal. Ultimately, how legal practitioners should navigate charges under this section of the criminal code depends on their clients' specific circumstances and their objectives.