section 7(2.34)


This section defines a Partner State as a foreign state that has entered into and ratified the relevant agreement with Canada.


7.(2.34) "Partner State" means a State, other than Canada, who contracted to enter into the Agreement and for which the Agreement has entered into force in accordance with article 25 of the Agreement.


Section 7(2.34) of the Criminal Code of Canada defines the term Partner State" as a country other than Canada that has contracted to enter into the Agreement and for which the Agreement has entered into force. This refers to the mutual legal assistance agreement between Canada and its partner states, which facilitates the investigation and prosecution of criminal offences by allowing for cooperation between the countries involved. The Agreement serves as a framework for countries to assist each other in criminal investigations and proceedings, including the exchange of evidence and information, the transfer of accused or convicted persons, and the provision of other legal assistance. Partner states can benefit from the cooperation and assistance of Canadian authorities in their own investigations, while Canada can request the assistance of partner states in cases affecting its own interests. By including a definition of Partner State in the Criminal Code, the Canadian government is able to reference this term within the legal framework of the agreement with confidence. This section provides clarity to law enforcement officials, prosecutors, judges, and legal experts regarding the identity of the countries that can be considered for mutual legal assistance arrangements. It is crucial in ensuring that international cooperation among law enforcement agencies is maintained in a streamlined and efficient manner, promoting the common goal of fighting crime and securing justice for victims.


Section 7(2.34) of the Criminal Code of Canada defines the term "Partner State" as any state that has entered into agreement with Canada and has ratified it in accordance with article 25 of the Agreement. This Agreement refers to the Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Act (MLACMA), which is a treaty signed between Canada and several other countries aimed at facilitating cooperation and collaboration between these countries in criminal investigations and prosecution. The MLACMA treaty was developed to address the growing international concern of transnational crimes such as terrorism, drug trafficking, money laundering, and cybercrime. These quickly evolving criminal activities have posed a significant threat to national security, and their borderless nature has made it challenging for individual countries to address them effectively. The treaty, therefore, allows for mutual support amongst countries in the investigation and prosecution of these crimes, enabling them to pool their resources, expertise, and intelligence for more effective results. As excerpted in section 7(2.34), the definition of a Partner State stipulates that the state must have ratified the MLACMA treaty in accordance with article 25. Article 25 outlines the process of ratification, requiring the agreement to enter into force once at least five states have ratified it. The agreement is then deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, and any further state that ratifies it afterward is deemed a party to the agreement. The definition of Partner State in the Criminal Code of Canada holds significant importance in the implementation of the treaty and in enabling effective cooperation and collaboration between the signatory countries. It ensures that only those countries that have ratified the agreement are considered partners in this regard, and thus they can enjoy the benefits of the mutual legal assistance provisions contained within it. By laying out this definition, the Canadian government can maintain a clear distinction between countries that have joined the treaty and those that have not, and thus prioritize its efforts towards cooperating with partners. In conclusion, section 7(2.34) of the Criminal Code of Canada identifies the criteria for a Partner State in relation to the MLACMA treaty. The definition is an essential element of the treaty's implementation, enabling cooperation and collaboration between the countries that have signed and ratified it. By defining Partner State clearly, Canada can ensure that it focuses its efforts towards cooperating with the countries that have joined the treaty privately, removing any confusion or ambiguity about which countries are considered partners. This ultimately enables the effective fight against transnational crimes and contributes to international security.


Section 7(2.34) of the Criminal Code of Canada defines the term "Partner State" as a foreign country with which Canada has entered into an agreement related to criminal matters. This definition is significant because it establishes the legal framework for Canada's international cooperation in the investigation and prosecution of crimes. The section also highlights the importance of strategic considerations when dealing with foreign partners, which can impact the success of such cooperation. One essential strategic consideration when dealing with Partner States involves understanding the legal system of the foreign country and its level of cooperation with Canada's justice system. This requires a thorough assessment of the country's criminal justice structures, laws, and practices. Some partner countries may have differing legal systems and practices that could affect the sharing of information, extradition, or other areas of cooperation. For example, extradition treaties require a high degree of trust and cooperation between the two countries. However, some partner countries may be hesitant to extradite their citizens or impose the death penalty, which could affect Canada's ability to investigate and prosecute certain types of crimes. Another strategic consideration is assessing the quality of information exchanged between Canada and the Partner State. Effective information sharing requires trust and confidence between countries. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the information shared are crucial to ensure a successful prosecution. While some countries may have different standards and methods of gathering and assessing evidence, it is vital to avoid misunderstandings that could jeopardize the investigation or prosecution. Canada also needs to determine how it can use the information obtained from the Partner State in court and ensure its admissibility as evidence. A third strategic consideration is the level of diplomatic and political relations between Canada and the foreign Partner State. High-level relationship management is critical, as diplomatic problems like trade sanctions, cultural differences, or political disagreements can impact cooperation efforts. Moreover, some countries may prioritize certain types of crimes or have specific political objectives when cooperating with Canada on matters of criminal justice, which may require special attention to the negotiations' diplomatic dimension. Special consideration is also necessary when dealing with Partner States with different cultural practices that could affect the crime investigation or prosecution process. To mitigate some of the challenges mentioned above, some strategies can be employed when dealing with Partner States. These include: 1. Building relationships based on mutual trust and respect. Establishing personal relationships and reliable communication can enhance cooperation and ensure a more effective response to criminal matters within a Partner State. Exchange visits by law enforcement, judges, and prosecutors can enhance mutual understanding and work towards common interests. 2. Developing mutual capacity building plans. Building common capacity in areas like forensic evidence collection, witness protection programs, and cybercrime investigation can enhance cooperation between Canada and the Partner State. 3. Developing clear and effective communication channels. These can include joint task forces or information-sharing agreements that detail how the Partner State will gather and share information, and the type of data that Canada needs to investigate and prosecute crimes effectively. 4. Addressing cultural differences in negotiation and approaches to cooperation. Understanding a Partner State's cultural practices, negotiating styles and political objectives can help Canada to be more effective in securing cross-border cooperation. 5. Ensuring expert legal advice. Obtaining expert advice on legal aspects of cooperation with the Partner State can help formulate a strategy for cross-border criminal justice cooperation. In conclusion, Section 7(2.34) of the Criminal Code highlights that cross-border cooperation in criminal matters is crucial and the importance of effective cooperation by Canada with its Partner States. For successful collaborations and investigations to occur, strategic considerations need to be put in place, and appropriate strategies should be employed. These will minimize challenges related to different legal systems, practices, and politics while maximizing mutual benefits derived from cooperation with Partner States.