section 98(4)


Anyone who commits an offence under subsection (1) is guilty of an indictable offence and may be sentenced to life imprisonment.


98(4) Every person who commits an offence under subsection (1) is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for life.


Section 98(4) of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision that relates to terrorism-related offences. This provision states that anyone who commits an offense under subsection (1) will be guilty of an indictable crime and may face imprisonment for life. The subsection 1 referred to here covers a range of terrorism-related offenses such as participating in or contributing to any activity that is designed to bring about death, serious harm, or damage to property. It also covers offenses such as facilitating terrorist activities, recruiting people to commit terrorist acts, and many more. Terrorism offences are considered among the most serious crimes in Canada, as they pose a threat to the safety and security of citizens. The inclusion of a maximum penalty of life imprisonment emphasizes the gravity of these offences and the need for strict deterrence measures. In addition, the fact that such crimes are punishable by indictable offenses also means that they are subject to a more complex, formal legal process that ensures a fair and impartial trial. The provision is relevant, especially in the context of today's security realities where the dangers of terrorism loom large. The provision provides law enforcement agencies with an important legal tool to deter and punish those who engage in terrorist activities. The provision also serves to protect national security and help safeguard Canadian citizens from any potential incidents of terrorism. In conclusion, the inclusion of Section 98(4) serves as a clear demonstration of Canada's commitment to combating the threat of terrorism and ensure public safety and security.


Section 98(4) of the Criminal Code of Canada pertains to the offence of terrorism. It states that every person who commits an offence under subsection (1) is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for life. The subsections mentioned in this provision, specifically, refer to the act of terrorism and the counselling to commit terrorism. The severity of the offence of terrorism cannot be understated. Acts of terrorism are intended to cause widespread fear and panic among the population. They often result in loss of innocent lives, destruction of property, and incalculable economic losses. The effects of terrorism are long-lasting and extend beyond the physical damage caused by the attack. They disrupt the fabric of society and cause a sense of distrust and suspicion in people. The Canadian government recognizes the devastation caused by terrorism and has established strict laws to prevent and combat it. Section 98(4) of the Criminal Code of Canada is one such law that serves as an effective deterrent against acts of terrorism. The punishment, imprisonment for life, is severe and serves as a reminder to individuals that any involvement in terrorism will not be taken lightly. It is worth noting that the provision applies not only to individuals who commit acts of terrorism but also those who counsel or advise someone to commit terrorism. This aspect of the law is crucial as it seeks to prevent individuals from radicalizing or influencing others to engage in terrorist activities. The provision is not without its criticism, with some arguing that the punishment of life imprisonment is too severe. They argue that life imprisonment should only be reserved for the most serious of crimes, such as murder, and that terrorism, while heinous, should not be categorized in the same vein. However, it is important to note that acts of terrorism often result in the loss of innocent lives, and the punishment must reflect the gravity of the offence. In addition, some argue that the provision could be misused to target individuals who engage in peaceful protests or advocacy. The provisions relating to terrorism must be used judiciously to ensure that they do not violate the rights and freedoms of individuals. In conclusion, Section 98(4) of the Criminal Code of Canada serves as an important deterrent against acts of terrorism. The punishment of life imprisonment serves as a reminder of the severity of terrorism and the long-lasting effects it can have on society. However, it is essential that the provisions relating to terrorism are used judiciously and do not violate the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals.


Section 98(4) of the Criminal Code of Canada sets out the penalties for individuals who commit an offence under subsection (1). The penalty is severe, with individuals facing indictable offences and life imprisonment for their actions. Dealing with this section of the Criminal Code requires strategic considerations to ensure the best possible outcome for all parties involved. One strategy that could be employed is a focus on prevention. This includes education and awareness campaigns to reduce the likelihood of individuals committing offences under this section. Education can be targeted at vulnerable individuals who may be more susceptible to radicalization, as well as those who play a role in identifying and reporting suspicious behaviour. Awareness campaigns can be used to increase public knowledge of the warning signs of terrorism and the importance of reporting suspicious activity to law enforcement officials. Another strategy is a focus on investigation and intervention. This involves detecting potential threats early and intervening before they can materialize into terrorist activity. This strategy requires effective intelligence gathering through coordinated partnerships between law enforcement, intelligence agencies, and other organizations. Risk assessment and management strategies can also be employed, which involve monitoring individuals who may be at risk of radicalization or who have shown a propensity towards extremist ideologies. A third strategy is a focus on prosecution. This involves enforcement of the law, pursuing charges against individuals who have committed offences under this section. This strategy requires significant resources, including investigative, prosecutorial, judicial, and penal resources. It also involves a high level of coordination and cooperation between various agencies involved in the criminal justice system. When dealing with this section of the Criminal Code, another strategic consideration is the need to balance security concerns with civil liberties. Many of the strategies employed to prevent and intervene with terrorist activity can infringe on privacy and individual rights. It is important to ensure that any action taken is proportional to the level of risk and that civil liberties are respected as much as possible. In addition, a multi-agency approach is essential when dealing with this section of the Criminal Code. No single agency or organization can effectively address terrorism. A coordinated effort is necessary, including law enforcement, intelligence agencies, emergency management agencies, private sector organizations, and community groups. Finally, there should be a focus on rehabilitation and reintegration. While individuals who commit offences under this section face severe penalties, there may be opportunities for rehabilitation and reintegration into society. This requires access to programs and services that can help individuals renounce extremist ideologies and reintegrate into society. In conclusion, dealing with section 98(4) of the Criminal Code of Canada requires a multi-faceted and strategic approach that incorporates prevention, investigation and intervention, prosecution, balance of security concerns with civil liberties, a multi-agency approach, and rehabilitation and reintegration. Employing these strategies will require significant resources, coordination, and a commitment to long-term solutions.