section 131(2)


This section applies to statements made in judicial proceedings or not.


131(2) Subsection (1) applies, whether or not a statement referred to in that subsection is made in a judicial proceeding.


Section 131(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision that supports the application of Section 131(1) of the Code both inside and outside of the judicial arena. Section 131(1) prohibits the fabrication of false evidence, the use of fabricated evidence, and the corrupt manipulation of evidence with the intent to mislead a person acting in a judicial capacity. This section applies to all statements made in judicial proceedings, regardless of whether they are made under oath or affirmation. Section 131(2) extends the prohibition against the fabrication of false evidence and the manipulation of evidence to apply not only to statements made in the context of a judicial proceeding but to all statements made in any circumstance by any person. This means that those who manufacture falsified evidence or manipulate evidence to mislead individuals, even in non-judicial settings, can be charged and convicted under Section 131 of the Criminal Code of Canada. This provision has significant importance in the criminal justice system because it ensures that all fabricated or manipulated evidence, regardless of its intended use, can be sanctioned. It ensures the integrity of the administration of justice and helps to prevent wrongful convictions. The broad scope of Section 131(2) is an essential tool in deterring the fabrication and manipulation in all situations, even outside the courtroom. It serves as a reminder to all individuals that the criminal justice system takes very seriously any attempts to pervert the course of justice, and that such conduct will be punished under the criminal law.


Section 131(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada is a provision that modifies the application of subsection (1) of the same section. The purpose of this provision is to expand the scope of the previously established rule that prohibited willfully making a false statement in a judicial proceeding. Subsection (1) applied only to false statements made in a judicial proceeding, but subsection (2) clarifies that the provision also applies to non-judicial contexts. The importance of this provision can be seen in its potential to reduce false statements in non-judicial contexts, such as police investigations, administrative hearings, and regulatory proceedings. Without section 131(2), individuals may be more likely to provide false information, knowing that they would not be charged under subsection (1) due to the lack of connection to a judicial proceeding. This would be detrimental to the justice system and could lead to wrongful convictions, or the failure to prosecute those who are guilty of offenses. Moreover, the provision is also relevant in circumstances where false statements are made to authorities in order to hinder their investigations or obstruct justice. In such cases, the provision can serve as a deterrent to those who would seek to deceive law enforcement officers or impede the course of justice. It should be noted that the provision is not without limitations, and its application must be balanced against the protection of other fundamental rights and freedoms. For instance, the provision must not be used to curtail the right to freedom of expression or to compel individuals to provide information that would incriminate themselves. Additionally, the provision must be implemented with care to ensure that it is not used to target individuals who provide truthful information but who may be subjectively considered unreliable or whose evidence may be disputed. In conclusion, section 131(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision that expands the application of section 131(1) to include non-judicial contexts. This provision serves to prevent individuals from providing false information to authorities, whether they are acting in a judicial or non-judicial capacity. This provision protects the integrity of the justice system and contributes to the pursuit of justice in Canada. However, it is crucial that the provision is applied in a manner consistent with the protection of other fundamental rights and freedoms, and that it is not used to unjustly target individuals who provide truthful information.


Section 131(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision that applies to any statement made with the intent to obstruct justice, whether or not it was made in a judicial proceeding. This provision allows law enforcement officials to charge individuals who attempt to corrupt or subvert the justice system, regardless of whether or not they are directly involved in a trial or investigation. As such, there are several strategic considerations that individuals and organizations should take into account when dealing with this section of the Criminal Code, including the use of legal counsel, the importance of transparency, and the potential consequences of breaking this law. One of the most important strategic considerations in dealing with Section 131(2) is the need for legal counsel. This provision is complex and can be difficult to interpret, especially for individuals who are not familiar with the legal system. As such, anyone who is charged with an offense under this section should seek legal advice as soon as possible. A qualified lawyer can help to clarify the charges, advise on the best course of action, and represent the accused in court if necessary. Legal counsel can also help to minimize the potential consequences of a conviction, which can include heavy fines, imprisonment, and damage to one's reputation. Another strategic consideration in dealing with Section 131(2) is the importance of transparency. This provision is designed to ensure that the justice system remains fair and impartial, and that individuals cannot manipulate or interfere with the proceedings. As such, anyone who is involved in a legal or quasi-legal process should be transparent in their dealings and avoid any actions that could be perceived as attempting to obstruct justice. This includes being upfront and honest with authorities, providing all necessary information, and cooperating fully with any investigations. Finally, it is important to consider the potential consequences of breaking this law. The penalties for violating Section 131(2) can be severe, and can include both fines and imprisonment. Additionally, a conviction under this provision can have long-lasting consequences, including damage to one's reputation and difficulty finding employment or housing. As such, it is critical to take this law seriously and avoid any actions that could put one at risk of prosecution. In terms of strategies that could be employed to avoid running afoul of Section 131(2), the most important step is to always be honest, transparent, and cooperative with authorities. This means providing any information that is requested, even if it may be damaging or incriminating. It also means avoiding any attempt to interfere with or subvert the justice system, whether through bribery, intimidation, or other means. Finally, it is important to work with legal counsel to understand the full implications of this law and to develop strategies for avoiding prosecution where possible. In conclusion, Section 131(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada is a critical provision that helps to ensure the fair and impartial administration of justice in Canada. While it can be complex and difficult to navigate, the strategic considerations outlined above can help individuals and organizations to reduce the risk of prosecution and protect their reputations and interests. By working with legal counsel, being transparent and cooperative, and avoiding any attempt to obstruct justice, individuals can help to ensure that the justice system remains fair, impartial, and effective.