section 2


This section defines the term cattle and includes various related animals.


2. In this Act, "cattle" means neat cattle or an animal of the bovine species by whatever technical or familiar name it is known, and includes any horse, mule, ass, pig, sheep or goat;


Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision that defines the term cattle" for the purpose of the Act. This section extends the definition of cattle beyond just neat cattle or bovine species to include other animals such as horses, mules, asses, pigs, sheep or goats, regardless of their common or technical names. This definition is important as it allows for a broader application of the Criminal Code in cases related to the treatment and welfare of animals. This section applies to several offences under the Criminal Code of Canada, including animal cruelty offences. For example, if a person causes unnecessary pain, suffering or injury to an animal that falls under this definition, they could be charged with animal cruelty under section 445 of the Criminal Code. Furthermore, this definition could also serve as a guideline for enforcement agencies like the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) to conduct inspections and take actions to prevent cruelty and abuse towards animals under their jurisdiction. The CFIA has the power to investigate and enforce federal laws and regulations concerning the health and welfare of food animals at federally inspected facilities. In conclusion, the inclusion of a broader definition of cattle" in Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada has significant implications for the protection of animal welfare, the enforcement of federal laws, and the promotion of ethical standards relating to the treatment of animals in Canada.


Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada defines the term "cattle" as encompassing animals of the bovine species, whether known by a technical or familiar name, as well as certain other animals such as horses, pigs, sheep, and goats. While this definition may seem straightforward and of little consequence, it is actually a critical component of Canadian law that has both practical and symbolic significance. First and foremost, the inclusion of animals such as horses, pigs, sheep, and goats under the definition of cattle means that they are subject to the same legal protections as cows. This includes criminal penalties for offenses such as theft, cruelty, and neglect. Thus, if someone were to steal a sheep or beat a pig, they could be charged with the same crime as if they had done so to a cow. This is an important protection for these animals, as they may be just as vulnerable to mistreatment or theft as cows, and ensuring that they are covered by the same laws as cattle helps to prevent potential abuses. Moreover, this definition recognizes the interconnectedness of different animal species in agriculture and food production. While cows may be the most commonly raised and consumed animals in Canada, the inclusion of horses, pigs, sheep, and goats acknowledges their important roles in the livestock industry as well. This recognition can help to ensure that these animals are not marginalized or under-protected, and that their welfare and treatment are given the same consideration and attention as those of cows. Beyond these practical considerations, section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada also has symbolic significance. By defining "cattle" as encompassing other animal species, it acknowledges that all animals deserve certain basic rights and protections. This is a recognition of the intrinsic value and dignity of all living beings, regardless of their usefulness to humans. This perspective stands in stark contrast to largely outdated views of animals as mere objects or commodities to be exploited for human gain, and reflects a growing awareness of the ethical considerations surrounding animal exploitation and welfare. Of course, section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada is not a perfect or comprehensive protection for animal welfare. Many animal advocates argue that the legal protections for animals in Canada are inadequate, and that more must be done to ensure that animals are not exploited or mistreated. However, this section of the Criminal Code does represent an important step forward in recognizing the basic rights and protections that all animals deserve, regardless of their species. By defining "cattle" in this way, Canada has taken a small yet meaningful step towards a more just and compassionate treatment of animals.


In dealing with section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada, strategic considerations would depend on the specific circumstances of the case. However, there are some general strategies that could be employed when interpreting and applying this section of the Code. Firstly, it is important to carefully review and understand the definition of "cattle" as provided in the Code. The definition includes not only neat cattle or bovine animals but also other animals such as horses, mules, asses, pigs, sheep, and goats. This broad definition means that a wider range of animals could potentially fall under the category of "cattle" and be subject to criminal sanctions for offenses such as theft, cruelty, or destruction of property. Given the broad definition of "cattle", it is important to determine whether an animal can be classified as such in order to determine the applicability of relevant criminal offenses. A strategic approach would involve considering not only the technical or familiar names of the animal but also its physical and genetic characteristics. For example, a hybrid animal that is part cow and part horse may be subject to debate as to whether it should be classified as "cattle" under the Code. In such cases, it would be important to consider factors such as the animal's primary characteristics and intended use. Another strategic consideration when dealing with section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada is the context in which an animal is being dealt with. For instance, an animal used for research or scientific purposes might be treated differently than one used for agricultural or commercial purposes. As such, it may be necessary to consider specialized legislation or regulations that apply specifically to these types of animals. A further strategy would involve taking into account any applicable international conventions or agreements relating to animal welfare and rights. Canada has signed onto a number of such agreements, including the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Considering such international instruments when interpreting section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada may offer additional guidance on how to classify and treat animals. In conclusion, strategic considerations when dealing with section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada would depend on the specific circumstances of the case involved. However, some general strategies could be employed, including a careful review and understanding of the broad definition of "cattle", consideration of the animal's characteristics and context, and the appropriate use of international instruments or agreements.