section 83.18(1)


Participating in or contributing to a terrorist group with the intent to enhance their ability to carry out terrorist activities is punishable with imprisonment for up to 10 years.


83.18 (1) Every one who knowingly participates in or contributes to, directly or indirectly, any activity of a terrorist group for the purpose of enhancing the ability of any terrorist group to facilitate or carry out a terrorist activity is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.


Section 83.18(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada makes it a criminal offense for any individual to knowingly participate in or contribute to any activity of a terrorist group with the intention of enhancing the group's ability to carry out a terrorist activity. This section is part of the broader provisions of the Criminal Code of Canada aimed at combating terrorism, which includes measures to prevent the financing of terrorist activities and the listing of terrorist entities. Under this section, an individual can be charged with an indictable offense and may face a maximum sentence of ten years in prison if they knowingly engage in activities that support a terrorist group, either directly or indirectly. This includes providing money, resources, or other forms of support to the group, or actively taking part in planning and carrying out terrorist attacks. The section is designed to discourage individuals from engaging in activities that could further the terrorist group's objectives or help them to carry out their attacks. It is also meant to provide law enforcement agencies with the tools they need to investigate and prosecute individuals who are involved in terrorist activities or support. The Criminal Code of Canada defines a terrorist group as any group of individuals who promote or engage in terrorist activities, which are defined as acts of violence or threats of violence committed in order to intimidate the public or a segment of the public, or to compel the government or any organization to do or refrain from doing any act. The definition of terrorism under the Canadian Criminal Code is broad and captures a wide range of activities that could be harmful to public safety and security.


Section 83.18(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision in the fight against terrorism. It criminalizes any form of participation or contribution to terrorist groups, with the aim of enhancing their ability to facilitate or carry out terrorist activities. This provision is crucial in helping to prevent terrorism in Canada, by holding individuals accountable for their actions in supporting terrorist organizations. Since the events of 9/11, terrorism has become a global threat, and Canada is not immune to this. Canada, like other countries, has experienced a number of high-profile terrorism-related incidents, including the Toronto 18 plot to detonate a series of bombs across the city. In response to these threats, the Canadian government has enacted various measures to combat terrorism, including the Anti-Terrorism Act, 2015, which amended the Criminal Code of Canada, including the creation of Section 83.18. The main intent of Section 83.18 is to prevent individuals from providing any form of assistance to a terrorist group. This can include providing financial support, weapons, or other resources, which could be used in the commission of terrorist activities. The section seeks to hold individuals accountable for their actions in assisting terrorists, even if they do not directly engage in terrorist activities themselves. Under Section 83.18, any person who is found guilty of knowingly participating in or contributing to a terrorist group is guilty of an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years. This is a significant penalty and serves as a deterrent to those who may contemplate providing assistance to terrorist organizations. The section has been applied in several cases in Canada, including the case of Zakaria Amara, a member of the Toronto 18 group, who was charged and convicted under this provision. In this case, Amara was found to have provided materials and resources to the Toronto 18 group, which was planning to carry out a series of terrorist attacks across the city. Amara was sentenced to life imprisonment, with a minimum of ten years in prison before being eligible for parole. The provision of section 83.18 has been criticized by some as being too broad and open to interpretation, potentially leading to infringement of civil liberties. However, the provision has been upheld by Canadian courts and has been found to be constitutional. Furthermore, the provision contains safeguards to protect against any potential abuse, including the requirement that the individual must knowingly participate or contribute to a terrorist group. In conclusion, Section 83.18 of the Criminal Code of Canada is a vital provision in the fight against terrorism. It sends a clear message that Canada takes terrorism seriously and will hold individuals accountable for their actions in supporting terrorist organizations. While concerns over civil liberties must be taken seriously, this provision strikes a necessary balance between protecting individual rights and ensuring public safety.


Strategic considerations when dealing with Section 83.18(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada broadly focus on prevention, detection, and prosecution of individuals involved in terrorist activities or organizations. Since the legislation encompasses a wide range of activities, it is crucial to consider the application of laws without violating civil liberties. One of the critical strategies involves interagency cooperation and intelligence sharing between law enforcement, non-governmental agencies, and international partners. It helps to identify terrorist organizations' network and their modus operandi, track their funding sources, and monitor their communication channels. The integration of efforts is quintessential to prevent terrorist activities and protect the public from harm. Furthermore, such cooperation facilitates a strategic approach to investigate transnational terrorist activities that may originate from foreign countries. Another key strategy is to implement investigation tactics and technological tools to intercept communication channels used by terrorist groups to plan and execute their attacks. The use of intelligence technology, like wiretapping, intercepts messages or calls, and computer surveillance, is vital in analyzing terrorist plots. In addition, investigations can be conducted in an ethical manner to comply with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, ensuring that the rights afforded to every Canadian citizen are not violated. Deploying undercover agents to penetrate terrorist organizations and gather information is also a useful law enforcement tool. The strategy of de-radicalization or rehabilitation of individuals who have already recruited or have been led to believe in extremist ideology is also essential in preventing individuals from being drawn into terrorist activity. Working with community organizations and social workers, police and government can enable dialogue and community-led programs aimed at rehabilitating people who have already been exposed to extremist ideologies. The idea is to identify vulnerable persons early and address the underlying social or psychological issues that are exploited by extremist organizations to radicalize individuals. Furthermore, raising public awareness about the dangers of extremist ideologies and creating an environment of vigilance can also be a strategy of great importance. Governments can collaborate with community organizations to deliver messages that emphasize the negative effects of extremist ideologies and emphasize the importance of reporting any potential terrorist activity to the relevant law enforcement authorities. In conclusion, there are various strategies that can be employed in dealing with Section 83.18(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada, ranging from prevention, detection, and prosecution to reducing the appeal of extremist ideologies and recruiting, and protecting Canadian Civil Liberties. A multi-agency approach, technology deployment, intelligence sharing, community involvement, and public awareness campaigns are some of the essential factors that aid in combating terrorism. Maintaining a balance between national security and human rights and maintaining the trust of the Canadian public is essential for success in this area.