section 32(3)


Individuals are legally justified in using force to suppress a riot if they act in good faith and are following a lawful order from a peace officer.


32(3) Every one is justified in obeying an order of a peace officer to use force to suppress a riot if (a) he acts in good faith; and (b) the order is not manifestly unlawful.


Section 32(3) of the Criminal Code of Canada outlines the circumstances under which individuals can use force to suppress a riot, under the orders of a peace officer. This section provides protection to those who are acting in good faith and following the lawful orders of authorities during a riot. This provision recognizes that riots can pose significant threats to public safety and property, and it's essential to have proper control over such situations. However, it also ensures that law enforcement personnel don't engage in excessive use of force, and civilian individuals don't face prosecution for acting under the orders of the authorities and acting in good faith. The key requirement for this provision's applicability is that the force used in suppressing the riot must fall within reasonable limits, and the orders given to the individual by the peace officer must not be manifestly unlawful. Moreover, any actions taken by the individual must be necessary and proportional to the situation's demands. Furthermore, engaging in destructive, violent, or dangerous conduct during a riot is a criminal offense under the Canadian Criminal Code. Therefore, any persons engaging in such activities can be arrested and prosecuted, and the use of force to suppress such actions is justified under the law. In conclusion, section 32(3) of the Criminal Code of Canada balances the need to preserve public safety while ensuring that lawful orders are followed and excessive force is not used to suppress riots. It highlights the importance of maintaining control while at the same time protecting the rights of individuals and preventing abuse of power.


Section 32(3) of the Criminal Code of Canada deals with the use of force by individuals in response to orders given by peace officers in situations of rioting. The provision states that anyone who obeys such an order is justified in using force to suppress a riot, so long as they act in good faith and the order is not manifestly unlawful. The purpose of this provision is to provide legal protection to individuals who may be required to use force in situations of civil unrest and disorder. The provision recognizes that in such situations, it may be necessary for peace officers to give orders to use force, and that individuals who obey such orders should not be held liable for actions taken in response to those orders. However, the provision also includes important safeguards to ensure that the use of force is lawful and justified. In particular, the requirement that individuals act in good faith means that they must genuinely believe that they are acting in accordance with the order given, and must not have any ulterior motives or intentions. This helps to prevent individuals from using the provision as a cover for unlawful or excessive use of force. Similarly, the requirement that the order not be manifestly unlawful ensures that orders given in response to rioting are reasonable and lawful. This helps to prevent abuse of power or arbitrary use of force by peace officers, while still allowing for an effective response to situations of civil unrest. Overall, Section 32(3) of the Criminal Code of Canada strikes a balance between the need to maintain public order and protect individuals from harm, and the need to ensure that force is only used in lawful and justifiable ways. The provision provides an important legal framework for responding to situations of rioting and civil unrest, and helps to ensure that the use of force is exercised responsibly and in accordance with the law.


Section 32(3) of the Criminal Code of Canada empowers peace officers to order the use of force when suppressing a riot. However, this power comes with significant responsibilities, including ensuring that the use of force is proportionate, necessary, and lawful. This section of the Criminal Code also places certain obligations on individuals who are ordered to use force to quell a riot. In light of these legal requirements, it is essential to consider some strategic considerations when dealing with this section of the Criminal Code. One of the most important strategic considerations is ensuring that peace officers are adequately trained on the appropriate use of force. Such training should include scenarios that simulate a riot scenario to ensure that peace officers can identify when the use of force is necessary, proportional and lawful. Moreover, the training should provide peace officers with an understanding of the limits of the power conferred by section 32(3) of the Criminal Code. This way, they can exercise due diligence and avoid the abuse of power when using force to suppress a riot. Another strategic consideration is ensuring that the peace officers have the necessary equipment and resources to deal with the riot. For example, they may need protective gear such as helmets, shields, and body armor, as well as crowd control devices like barriers, tear gas, and water cannons. Having the right equipment and resources ensures that peace officers are well prepared to handle any situations that may arise, thereby minimizing the risk of excessive use of force. Moreover, it is essential to ensure that the peace officers adhere to the principles of legality, proportionality, and necessity when using force to quell a riot. These principles require that the use of force must be necessary to achieve a lawful purpose, proportionate to the threat posed and not exceed the minimum force required to achieve the goal. Finally, it is critical to ensure that the public is informed about section 32(3) and the circumstances in which force may be ordered and used to suppress a riot. This can be achieved through a public education campaign or by providing information on the police and government websites. By doing so, the public is better informed about the legal framework and the procedures involved in suppressing a riot, which can foster trust and cooperation between the police and the community. In conclusion, dealing with section 32(3) of the Criminal Code of Canada requires strategic considerations to ensure that peace officers exercise their powers responsibly and within the limits of the law. Training, resources, adherence to legal principles, and public education are all key aspects of such considerations. Employing these strategies can ensure that the use of force to suppress a riot is lawful, effective, and does not infringe on individuals' rights and freedoms.