section 418(2)


This section makes it an offence for representatives of organizations to knowingly participate in fraud or fail to report it.


418(2) Every one who, being a representative of an organization that commits, by fraud, an offence under subsection (1), (a) knowingly takes part in the fraud, or (b) knows or has reason to suspect that the fraud is being committed or has been or is about to be committed and does not inform the responsible government, or a department thereof, of Her Majesty, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years.


Section 418(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada is a provision that makes it an indictable offense for individuals who, as representatives of an organization, knowingly participate in or provide support to an offense committed by that organization through fraudulent means. The provision states that anyone who, either knowingly or with reasonable suspicion, fails to report this activity to the appropriate government department is also guilty of an indictable offense and may face up to fourteen years imprisonment. The section is aimed at holding representatives of organizations accountable for any fraudulent activity carried out by the organization. It is intended to build the necessary checks and balances that would make it difficult for an organization to commit a fraudulent act and get away with it. This section is also aligned with Canada's commitment to ensuring transparency and accountability in public and private organizations. Organizations have a responsibility to operate within the bounds of the law and are accountable to the government, shareholders, and other stakeholders. Failure to do so can have far-reaching consequences for the organization, its employees, and stakeholders, as well as society as a whole. In summary, section 418(2) is a vital provision in the Criminal Code of Canada, which ensures that representatives of organizations are held accountable for fraudulent activities committed by their organizations. It is designed to prevent and punish fraudulent activity while fostering transparency and accountability in public and private institutions.


Section 418(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada criminalizes the actions of representatives of organizations who are complicit in fraud committed by their organization. This provision serves to hold individuals accountable for their role in fraudulent activities, even if they are not the ones directly committing the fraud. The provision is broad in its application, as it can apply to any type of organization, whether it be a corporation, non-profit, or government agency. The provision is also broad in its scope of individuals who can be held liable, as it includes any representative of the organization who knows or has reason to suspect that fraud is being committed and fails to inform the responsible government department. The provision is necessary in order to combat fraud. Fraud is a serious crime that causes significant harm to individuals and society as a whole. It can erode public trust in institutions and lead to financial losses for victims. By holding representatives of organizations accountable for their role in fraud, the provision helps to deter fraudulent activities and maintain the integrity of institutions. The provision also serves to address the issue of corporate accountability. In recent years, there have been high-profile cases of corporate fraud, such as the Enron scandal. These cases have highlighted the need for individuals within organizations to be held accountable for their role in fraudulent activities. The provision ensures that individuals within organizations cannot escape liability by claiming ignorance or passing the blame onto others within the organization. However, the provision raises some concerns regarding its potential impact on whistleblowers. Whistleblowers play an important role in exposing fraudulent activities within organizations. If representatives of organizations are hesitant to report fraud to the responsible government department out of fear of being implicated themselves, then fraudulent activities may go unreported and unpunished. In order to address these concerns, it is important to ensure that individuals who do come forward to report fraudulent activities are protected from retaliation. This can be achieved through whistleblower protection laws, which provide legal protections to individuals who report wrongdoing. In conclusion, Section 418(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision for combatting fraud within organizations. It helps to ensure that individuals within organizations are held accountable for their role in fraudulent activities and serves to maintain the integrity of institutions. However, it is important to ensure that the provision does not discourage whistleblowers from coming forward to report wrongdoing.


Section 418(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada is a provision that imposes serious criminal liability on individuals who fail to report fraud committed by organizations with whom they are associated. As such, it is important for organizations and their representatives to stay informed of this provision and take necessary measures to ensure compliance. This article explores some strategic considerations and possible strategies that can be employed in the context of section 418(2). Strategic Considerations: 1. Compliance with Internal Policies and Procedures: Organizations should implement robust internal policies and procedures that clearly define their obligations and responsibilities under section 418(2). The policies should be communicated to all employees and representatives of the organization to ensure compliance. Such policies should also stipulate the consequences of non-compliance. 2. Risk Assessment: Organisations should carry out a risk assessment to identify potential areas of fraud and create a system for reporting suspicious activities promptly. Such assessments should permeate all levels of the organization and should involve the establishment of internal whistleblowing mechanisms. 3. Due Diligence: Organizations should conduct due diligence on their clients, suppliers, and partners, and should include contractual provisions that require parties to promptly report any fraudulent activities identified within the relationship. 4. Monitoring and Supervision: Organizations should consider putting in place a robust monitoring and supervision system to detect instances of fraud or any suspicious activity. This can include the use of data analytics tools and regular audits. 5. Staff Training: Ensure that all staff and representatives are given adequate training to recognize suspicious transactions, understand the risks of fraud and guidelines about what to do if fraudulent activities are suspected. Possible Strategies to Deploy: 1. Establish a Fraud Prevention Task Force: This task force will be responsible for developing and implementing policies and procedures to prevent and detect fraudulent activities within the organization. It will also carry out investigations and penalties against internal parties that violate anti-fraud policies. 2. Create a Threat Intelligence Database: This database would regularly gather information from several sources including the internet, news articles, and internal reports to identify new fraud trends, enabling organizations to stay one step ahead in detecting and preventing fraudulent activities. 3. Implement a robust Whistleblowing Policy: Establishing a professional and safe environment where employees can report suspicious activities of a company - without fear of retaliation - gives the best possible chance of detecting fraud at its earliest. 4. Set up an Anonymous Reporting Channel: In cases where employees are not comfortable reporting through the internal channels, the establishment of a third-party independent reporting line would encourage anonymous whistleblowing, and increase detection capabilities. 5. Having an Incident Response Communicating System: In the event of fraud detection, it is important to have a well-planned and coordinated incident response system that can provide regular updates to necessary internal parties like shareholders, regulatory authorities, and the media. In conclusion, Section 418(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada recognizes the importance of transparency, accountability, and good governance practices in the fight against fraudulent activities. Thus, it is important for organizations and their representatives to remain proactive in the detection and prevention of fraudulent activities. The strategies and considerations outlined in this article can be employed by organizations to stay in compliance with the provisions of Section 418(2).