section 2


This section defines indictment as including information, counts, pleadings, and records in the Criminal Code of Canada.


2. In this Act, "indictment" includes (a) information or a count therein, (b) a plea, replication or other pleading, and (c) any record;


Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada defines the term "indictment" as used within the Act. The section establishes that the term "indictment" is not limited to the traditional meaning of a formal accusation by a grand jury. Instead, an indictment can also include information or a count within it, as well as any plea, replication, or other legal pleadings. Additionally, any record pertaining to a criminal case can also fall within the definition of an indictment. This section is important because it expands the scope of what can be considered an indictment under Canadian law. By including information or any related pleadings, the section acknowledges that formal indictments are not always necessary for a criminal case to proceed. This is significant because it recognizes that the legal system can be adaptable, and that multiple forms of charging documents can be used to bring a case to court. Furthermore, the inclusion of a broad definition of an indictment ensures individuals are not unfairly prejudiced during legal proceedings. The definition is designed to ensure that all charging documents or records are considered and that no oversight occurs that could impact the outcome of a case. Overall, Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada is a vital component of the legal framework for criminal proceedings. It acknowledges the need for flexibility in the charging process, which is essential in ensuring that justice is served.


Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada is an essential part of the Act because it defines the term *indictment" and includes the different legal documents that fall under its definition. The Criminal Code is a set of laws governing criminal offences and procedures in Canada. An indictment is a formal document that charges a person with a crime and leads to a trial in court. It is a crucial legal document because it initiates the process of criminal prosecution in court. This section of the Criminal Code explains the different types of documents that are considered part of the indictment. It states that an indictment includes information or a count therein, a plea, replication or other pleading, and any record. This is an important clarification because it ensures that all legal documents that are part of the indictment are recognized and treated accordingly. The inclusion of various legal documents in the definition of *indictment" provides prosecutors with flexibility in pleading charges and representing the Crown at trial. The first type of document included in the definition of *indictment" is information or a count therein. The information is a document that sets out the charges against an accused person. It outlines the specific allegations of criminal conduct that the Crown intends to prove in court. The count or counts in an information refer to the individual charges against the accused. For example, an information may include multiple counts of theft or assault. The second type of document included in the definition of *indictment" is a plea, replication, or other pleading. This refers to the stage of the legal process where the accused plea is entered. A plea is the formal response of the accused to the charges set out in the information. The replication is the document filed by the Crown in response to the plea. Other pleadings may also be filed during the course of the trial, and all of them are considered part of the indictment. The third type of document included in the definition of *indictment" is any record. This refers to any legal document or record that is part of the indictment. It includes the information, all pleadings, transcripts, and exhibits that have been submitted in court. Essentially, any document that is part of the trial record is considered part of the indictment. Overall, this section of the Criminal Code plays an essential role in ensuring that all legal documents that are part of the indictment are recognized and treated accordingly. This definition provides clarity for prosecutors, defence counsel, and judges when it comes to the legal documents involved in a criminal prosecution. By defining the term *indictment" and including these documents, this section of the Criminal Code serves to protect the integrity of the legal process while ensuring fairness for all parties involved.


Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada is an important provision that criminal lawyers and law firms need to be aware of. It defines the term indictment" and its different aspects, such as information or count therein, plea, replication, pleading, and any record. A thorough understanding of section 2 can be critical when navigating the Canadian criminal justice system. Strategic considerations when dealing with this section of the Criminal Code of Canada will vary depending on the case, circumstances, charges, and evidence available. Some of the top strategic considerations are as follows: 1. Charge Bargaining: Section 2 is especially critical during the pre-trial process when charge bargaining or plea bargaining may occur. Prosecutors may file an information or count without having to indict a defendant, and defendants may seek to have their charges reduced. A good criminal defense lawyer can use this provision to negotiate with the prosecution and get a favorable outcome for their client. 2. Building a Strong Defense: Criminal defense lawyers must also carefully consider section 2 when building a defense for their client. A good lawyer will review the counts and pleadings in a case thoroughly to identify any weaknesses or inconsistencies that can be used to argue for a dismissal or acquittal, or to impeach prosecution witnesses. 3. Protecting and Preserving Records: As section 2 notes, any record related to an indictment is included in its definition. Lawyers must ensure that all relevant records are obtained and preserved, as they may be crucial to a criminal trial. Lawyers can place discovery requests, file motions to compel discovery, and use other legal methods to obtain records they need for a strong defense. 4. Strategic Use of Pleadings: Section 2 mentions pleadings, and this aspect is crucial to criminal defense. Lawyers may seek to file motions to dismiss, demurrers, or other pre-trial pleadings that can force the prosecution to reveal weaknesses in their case or dismiss charges altogether. 5. Effective Communication: Finally, at all stages of the criminal justice process, criminal defense lawyers and their teams must communicate effectively and clearly with clients, the prosecution, the court, law enforcement, and others. Lawyers must also tailor their communication to the audience, ensuring that they may be understood by all parties. Strategies that can be employed to manage section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada include: 1. Case Analysis: Lawyers must analyze each case in detail to understand its nuances and weaknesses. To do this, a good lawyer should conduct a thorough investigation, review charges, indictments, and other documents, and then develop a strategy tailored to the client's needs. 2. Charge Reduction: Charge bargaining or plea bargaining may be advantageous for a defendant, especially when a prosecutor is willing to negotiate. A lawyer can use section 2 to argue for a charge reduction that could lead to a fairer sentence for their client. 3. Record Preservation: It is essential to obtain and preserve all documents related to a case, as this can help identify weaknesses in the prosecution's case and lead to the dismissal of charges. Lawyers may use discovery requests, subpoenas, and other legal methods to obtain these records. 4. Pleading Strategy: Lawyers can use their knowledge of section 2 to craft pre-trial pleadings, such as demurrers, motions to dismiss, or other pretrial pleadings, to force the court to consider the prosecution's weaknesses. 5. Effective Communication: Good criminal defense lawyers must be excellent communicators, able to articulate the strengths and weaknesses of their case to all parties involved. Lawyers must tailor communication to the audience, using simple language and analogies to make complex legal concepts easy to understand for clients and others involved in the case. Overall, Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada is an essential provision with far-reaching implications in criminal law. Criminal defense lawyers must understand this provision to develop effective strategies and achieve successful outcomes for their clients.