section 477.3(1)

INTRODUCTION AND BRIEF DESCRIPTION

This section grants Canadian authorities the power to arrest, search and seize in relation to offences committed on board a ship or marine structure and also allows for hot pursuit beyond territorial waters.

SECTION WORDING

477.3(1) Every power of arrest, entry, search or seizure or other power that could be exercised in Canada in respect of an act or omission referred to in section 477.1 may be exercised, in the circumstances referred to in that section, (a) at the place or on board the ship or marine installation or structure, within the meaning of section 2 of the Oceans Act, where the act or omission occurred; or (b) where hot pursuit has been commenced, at any place on the seas, other than a place that is part of the territorial sea of any other state.

EXPLANATION

Section 477.3(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada discusses the powers of arrest, entry, search, seizure or other powers that can be exercised in Canada in relation to acts or omissions defined in section 477.1. This section provides the scope within which law enforcement authorities can exercise these powers, including locations where they can be exercised and under what circumstances. The first provision of section 477.3(1) describes that the aforementioned powers can be exercised in the location where the act or omission has occurred. This would typically be the location where the offence was committed and where the accused individual is present. This provision enables law enforcement authorities to act quickly and efficiently to arrest the accused and gather necessary evidence. The second provision of section 477.3(1) deals with the concept of 'hot pursuit', which refers to the pursuit of a suspect who has fled a location immediately after committing an offence. This provision allows law enforcement authorities to pursue and arrest the suspect in any location on the seas except for any place that is part of the territorial sea of any other state. This provision ensures that law enforcement authorities can pursue and apprehend suspects who have fled to the seas and may attempt to evade arrest by crossing international waters. Overall, section 477.3(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada is an essential provision that sets out the scope and limitations of law enforcement authorities to exercise their powers in relation to acts or omissions defined in section 477.1. This section ensures that law enforcement authorities can act quickly and efficiently to apprehend suspects and gather necessary evidence, especially in cases where the suspect has fled the scene of the crime.

COMMENTARY

Section 477.3(1) is an important provision under the Criminal Code of Canada that empowers Canadian authorities to exercise their legal authority in respect of criminal acts or omissions that take place within Canada's maritime jurisdiction. The section is broad and allows for arrest, entry, search, seizure and other powers to be exercised in respect of such acts. The first part of the section provides that the power to exercise arrest, entry, search, seizure, or other powers may be exercised at the place or on board the ship, marine installation, or structure, within the meaning of section 2 of the Oceans Act, where the act or omission occurred. This provision ensures that Canadian law enforcement authorities have jurisdiction over all criminal matters that occur within Canada's territorial sea, including marine protected areas. The second part of the section provides that such powers can also be exercised where hot pursuit has been commenced at any place on the seas, other than a place that is part of the territorial sea of any other state. This provision allows for the pursuit of vessels engaged in criminal activities to be continued without the need for specific permission or authorization from other states. The provision is particularly relevant to the protection of Canada's fishery and marine resources, which has been a significant area of concern for the Canadian government. Since Canada's coastline is one of the longest in the world, it is essential to be able to exercise jurisdiction over criminal activities that may pose a threat to the country's natural resources. In summary, section 477.3(1) ensures that Canadian law enforcement authorities have the necessary power to protect Canada's territorial sea and marine resources against criminal activities. This provision is an essential part of Canada's overall legal framework and reinforces the country's commitment to promoting a safe and secure maritime environment. Its provisions support the overall objectives of the Canadian Department of National Defence, Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, and the Government of Canada.

STRATEGY

Section 477.3(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada is a complex and significant provision, as it grants Canadian authorities broad powers to exercise their jurisdiction outside of Canada in certain circumstances. This provision enables Canadian law enforcement agencies to take proactive measures to combat international crimes, including piracy, terrorism, drug trafficking, and other serious offences. When dealing with this section of the Criminal Code, law enforcement agencies must consider a range of strategic factors. Firstly, they must ensure that they have the necessary legal authority and jurisdiction to operate in foreign countries and international waters. This may require co-operation with other national and international law enforcement agencies, as well as careful negotiation with foreign governments and legal systems. Another important consideration is the need for proper coordination and communication between different law enforcement agencies. Given the cross-border nature of many international crimes, it is crucial that different agencies work together effectively to share intelligence, resources, and expertise. Furthermore, law enforcement agencies must ensure that they have the necessary equipment, training, and personnel to carry out their duties effectively. This may include specialized skills such as language proficiency, maritime navigation, or technical surveillance. It is also important to have appropriate policies and procedures in place to ensure that the use of the powers granted under section 477.3(1) adheres to ethical and legal principles, and that any investigations or operations undertaken are carried out in a safe, effective, and accountable manner. To effectively employ this provision, law enforcement agencies may utilize various strategies, including intelligence gathering, covert surveillance, targeted operations, and interagency coordination. They may also work with international partners to build capacity and improve cross-border cooperation. It is important to note, however, that any strategies employed must be carefully tailored to the specific context and comply with applicable laws and standards. In conclusion, section 477.3(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada grants Canadian law enforcement agencies significant powers to combat international crime. However, to effectively utilize these powers, law enforcement agencies must carefully consider various strategic factors, including legal authority, coordination, equipment, personnel, and ethical principles. By doing so, they may be better equipped to undertake investigations and operations in foreign countries and international waters, and protect the safety and security of Canadians both at home and abroad.